August 20, 1943: Income Tax Ordinance is passed by Legislative Council

Taxation was introduced to the colonial Gold Coast in 1850 with the ratification of an Executive Council which was given the authority to recommend laws subject to the Governor's approval. In 1943 the first colony wide income tax was levied with the introduction of the Income Tax Ordinance. The ordinance was later rolled into the National Investment Bank Act of 1963 and repealed and replaced with provisions in a 1985 amendment.

August 19, 1863: The Royal African Gold Coast artillery Force was disbanded

The Gold Coast Regiment originated in security units formed in the 1850s in what is now Ghana. The 'Gold Coast Corps' had been recruited in the early 1830s for the defence of settlements in the colony. By the 1850s it consisted of a number of small units, which were mainly used in a policing role. These were amalgamated in 1879 and renamed the 'Gold Coast Constabulary', which had a military role and in 1893-1894, took part in a campaign against the Ashanti kingdom,

The Gold Coast Artillery Corps was formed in 1850 and from the late 1850s wore a uniform similar to that of the West India Regiment. It was disbanded in 1863 however, after its soldiers had mutinied. It has been difficult to find documentary evidence of the causes of the mutiny. Many of its former members joined local forces which later became part of the Gold Coast Constabulary.

In 1901 the Gold Coast Constabulary was renamed the 'Gold Coast Regiment' as it became part of the newly organized West African Frontier Force under the direction of the Colonial Office. It was organized into one battalion of infantry and one battery of artillery. The artillery possessed only small field guns which could be moved by hand through the thick jungle found in much of the country

On the outbreak of the First World War, the Gold Coast Regiment was the main British force used to capture the neighbouring German colony of Togoland (modern Togo) and destroy its powerful radio masts. This action occurred before the war really got started in Europe and the first bullets fired by a British solder against the Germans in the war were fired by a Gold Coast Regiment soldier named Alhaji Grunshi (seen in the picture) more than a week before the first engagement in Europe.

The regiment then took part in the invasion of the German colony of Cameroon and spent the end of 1914 and most of 1915 fighting in the campaign to gain control of the colony and destroy its ability to relay radio messages to German warships. In 1916, the Gold Coast Regiment entered the campaign against the Germans in East Africa (modern Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania), which had been ongoing since August 1914. It fought through most of the East African campaign, engaging German forces in many places in what are now Tanzania and Mozambique. In mid-1918, the regiment returned to barracks in the Gold Coast and took no further part in the remainder of the campaign.

The Gold Coast Regiment remained part of the West Africa Frontier Force (later renamed the Royal West Africa Frontier Force) until shortly after the Gold Coast gained independence in 1957, when it was withdrawn from the RWAFF and renamed the Ghana Army. It is the forerunner of the First Infantry Brigade of the Ghana Army.

August 18, 1661: King Okai Koi of the Gas signs a treaty with Denmark for a permanent trading post- Fort Christiansborg

The area around present day Osu, came under the control of Sweden in the 1650s, led by the a Dutch trader Henry Caerlof. In 1652, he was given permission to build a small fortified lodge by the King of Accra, with whom he had previously done business. In 1660, control passed to the Netherlands but it was soon lost to Denmark-Norway. In 1657, Caerlof had again traveled to West Africa, this time representing Denmark-Norway.  On August 18 1661, Jost Cramer, Danish governor of Fredericksborg, near Cape Coast, acquired land from Chief Okai Koi for 3,200 gold florins. The Danes built a stone fort to replace the earthen lodge and named it Christiansborg (Christian’s fortress) after the former King of Denmark, Christian IV who had died in 1648. In its early years it was a seat of trade in gold and ivory but by the 17th century slave trading had become the core business as it was, all over the coast of West Africa.

The fort was controlled at different times by the Danes, the Akwamus and later the British, who purchased all the Danish possessions for £10,000 in 1850. It later became the seat of the British Colonial government when the capital was moved from Cape Coast to Accra.

August 16, 1969: The constituent assembly approves the constitution for the 2nd Republic

On this day, August 16, 1969 the constituent assembly approved the draft constitution setting the stage for elections for the return to constitutional governance in Ghana. This was to end the 3 years of military rule from February 1966, when the Nkrumah government was overthrown.

The Constitution of the second Republic, a voluminous documents comprising 177 articles, divided the executive power between the president and the cabinet headed by the Prime Minister. The powers of the president were however far less important than under the 1960 Constitution, while the prime minister wielded the real executive power. Another reaction to the later despotism of the First Republic, was the firm guarantees of human rights and freedoms embodied in the fourth chapter of the 1969 Constitution. The elections following this Constitution, were won by the progress party led by Dr. K.A. Busia, with an overwhelming majority, which may have been one of the causes of his downfall, making it too easy to be insensitive to criticism and to ignore the opposition in and outside of Parliament.

August 16, 1896: Submission of Prempeh I after 4th Anglo-Ashanti War

The 4th Anglo-Ashanti War spanned from December 1895 to February 1896. The war started on the pretext of failure to pay the fines levied on the Ashanti monarch by the Treaty of Fomena after the 1874 war. Sir Francis Scott left Cape Coast with the main expeditionary force of British and West Indian troops in December 1895, and arrived in Kumasi in January 1896.

The Asantehene directed the Ashanti not to resist, but casualties from sickness among the British troops were high. Among the dead was Queen Victoria's son-in-law, Prince Henry of Battenberg. Robert Baden-Powell led a native levy of several local allies in the campaign. Soon, Governor William Maxwell arrived in Kumasi as well. The Ashanti confederation was dissolved, and the protectorate secured. However, the British did not fully occupy the area. One estimate of the casualties suggests losses of 6000.

Baden-Powell published a diary of life giving the reasons, as he saw them, for the war: To put an end to human sacrifice. To put a stop to slave-trading and raiding. To ensure peace and security for the neighbouring tribes. To settle the country and protect the development of trade. To get paid up the balance of the war indemnity. He also believed that if a smaller force had been sent, there would have been bloodshed. The urgency for the British in instigating the conflict, was based on a fear of losing out to the French from the west and the Germans from the east, in the rush for Ashanti gold and other resources.

 Asantehene Prempeh I, was arrested and deposed. He was forced to sign a treaty of protection, and with other Ashanti leaders was sent into exile in the Seychelles. He was held at Elmina Castle for 4 years, deported first to Sierra Leone and then to the Seychelles.  As the King was being taken away, he is reported to have said to Hendrik Vroom the African British Administrator, “Nnaba Gyeme” but the anguished Mr. Vroom was powerless to assist the King of Ashanti.

August 14, 1896: The British establish a garrison at Kintampo on August 14, 1896

In the confused period between 1894 and 1896, the Asante continued to control much of the then Northern Territories, in spite of their having been subdued by the British at home. In 1896 after Kumase fell and Prempeh I was exiled, the Ya Na, stated “I want to be English, not German. The English conquer Asante, now I want to be English…” In spite of the British view that the Dagomba and Nanumba, automatically were under them by virtue of the Ashanti conquest, the Germans occupied Yendi, the capital of the Dagombas in the east.

On August 14, 1896, the British established a garrison in Kintampo (the geographic centre of modern Ghana) to protect trade and to advance their territorial interest in the north. There was always the threat from the slave trader Samory Toure, whose main interest was to continue to trade in slaves.

Everywhere the British went in the north, they found evidence of Asante administration, law, order and pacification of the territory. The north as a source of labor for the south was its greatest economic value to the colony. Slave labor in the service of the Asante in the 19th century was replaced by indentured labor of the British in the 20th century.


August 12, 2014: Legislative Act fixing the cocoa price for farmers passed on August 12, 1954

The “Council for Higher Cocoa Prices” was the CPP’s introduction of the Cocoa Duty and Development Funds (amendment) bill in August 1954. This first legislative act was to fix the price of cocoa for farmers, which became the precipitating factor for the formation of the National Liberation Movement (NLM), the federalist movement rooted in Ashanti. In Nkrumah’s view, “The NLM did not seem to realize that the cocoa, which they felt so possessive about, would be worthless without the labor, which came mainly from the Northern Territories, and without the exportation which was carried out in the South.” For Nkrumah, cocoa was a national economic asset that was not the monopoly of one region or one group of people; its economic wealth belonged to the entire nation. This was an uncompromising conviction he advocated throughout his life. Similarly, his concept of government remained wedded to supreme legislative power remaining at the center and “was not broad enough to encompass the demand, within his own country, for Asante autonomy” The NLM wanted the price of cocoa which was fixed at 72 shillings per load to be raised to 150 shillings per load, without recourse to the global market. In addition, they wanted a federalist constitution.

August 11, 1948: The University College of the Gold Coast is established by Ordinance

The University of Ghana was founded as the University College of the Gold Coast on August 11, 1948 as an affiliate college of the University of London, which supervised and awarded its degrees. It attained full university status in 1961. The university was created by ordinance from the work of the West African Commission of the Asquith Commission on Higher Education in the Colonies under the chairmanship of Rt. Hon. Walter Elliot.

This recommendation resulted principally from a rejection of the original proposal to have one University in Nigeria to serve British West Africa, by a number of Gold Coasters, principally Sir Arku Korsah and also later, scholar and politician Dr. J. B. Danquah. The university has a population of just under 40,000 students and has students from over 70 countries. It is the premier and largest university in Ghana. The University has four Colleges: College of Basic and Applied Sciences, College of Education, College of Health Sciences and College of Humanities

August 10, 1889: British and French sign an agreement demarcating the boundary between the Gold Coast and the Ivory Coast

The border area between Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana stretches from the lagoon regions bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the savannah in the North. In 1892, Governor Griffith chose George Ekem Ferguson, a Gold Coaster, for this important mission. Ferguson was to endeavour to make treaties especially with Gonja, Dagbon, Grushie and Mossi. The treaties were not to imply protection but "friendship and freedom of trade", with a commitment "not to make any treaty with or accept the protection of any other power without the consent of Her Majesty’s government”. Ferguson’s mission extended beyond demarcating both the western and eastern extent of British influence in the territory north of Ashanti. He concluded treaties with numerous northern nations on behalf of the British in three expeditions. Both the French and British, though competing for territory in the north, had to contend with the slave raiders Samory and Babatu. In March 1897, at Dawkita, during a clash between Samory's army and a British expedition led by Lieutenant Henderson and Ferguson, the British force was defeated, Ferguson was killed and Henderson was taken prisoner. Samory released Henderson because he wanted to ally with the British against the French and Babatu.

On the Cote d’Ivoire side, the southern border area is made up of five contemporary districts: the “departments” of Bondoukou, Tanda, Agnibilekrou, Abengourou and Aboisso. On the side of Ghana, the available regional subdivisions provide less details: we are left with two regions, Western and Brong-Ahafo. The Black Volta River only contributes to the most northern part. During the 19th century, the bulk of this border area was controlled by the Ashanti Empire. At the end of the 19th century, the French and British started to extend their domination, from trade posts located on the coast toward the North, by signing protectorate treaties with local kingdoms. The 1870 defeat of France against Prussia allowed Great Britain to extend its influence westward. A territorial exchange of the French trade posts of Grand Bassam and Assinie against British Gambia was even considered at that time.

The Binger expedition and the action of French men who had private interests in the region (TreichLapl`ene, Verdier) made France regain the lost ground from 1887 by signing treaties with kingdoms located in the middle part of the border area: Indenie (around Abengourou), Sefwi (around Debiso), Gyaman. Having signed treaties with both colonial powers, this latter kingdom, located around Bondoukou, was finally cut in two halves as early as 1891. The city of Bondoukou was first taken by the British in 1887, then by the French in 1888, then by the Diula leader Samori Toure in 1895; the British reconquered it in July 1897 when called for help by the king of the Gyaman, but the French took their revenge and imposed themselves in October 1897. The two colonial powers needed around 15 years, from 1889 to 1905, to agree upon a definitive alignment.

The layout of the last demarcation on the field, with teak trees, beacons and pillars, was achieved in 1984 on the Cote d’Ivoire side, and in 1988 on the Ghana side.

August 10, 1999: Odeefuo Boa Amponsem, King of Denkyira apologizes for the role of pre-colonial chiefs in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

August 10, 1999: Odeefuo Boa Amponsem, King of Denkyira apologizes for the role of pre-colonial chiefs in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Many African groups were themselves complicit in the slave trade. Initially, most slaves who were sold to Europeans were prisoners of war. As time progressed, groups began actively raiding villages to sell members of rival groups into slavery. It is estimated that of the over 12.5 million people who embarked across the Atlantic to be slaves, 10% came from the land that was to become the Gold Coast colony

August 9, 1963: Ebenezer Ako-Adjei, Tawia Adamafio, and HH Cofie-Crabbe tried for Kulungulu bomb blast

The trial lasted for over a year and the three were originally cleared by the court, headed by Chief Justice Arku Korsah. Nkrumah subsequently had Korsah dismissed from the bench and appointed a new court, re-charging the exonerated defendants. Nkrumah handpicked the jury in the next court which found the three guilty and sentenced them to death.

August 7, 1826 - Battle of Dodowa (Katamanso)

The people of Accra had been part of an alliance of local chiefs who had aided the British, Denkyira and Fantis in resisting an Ashanti advance on Cape Coast in July 1824. The Asantehene Nana Osei Yaw Akoto amassed an army of 40,000 and vowed to punish the "Akra" people in the aftermath of this defeat, by literally chasing the into the belly of the "kanfra" (a small fish in the ocean).

An alliance of British, along with Ga -Adangbe, Fanti, Denkyira, Akwamu and Akyems faced the Asante at Katamanso, in a battle that ended Asante suzerainty over many southern and coastal nations and contributed to the rise of British power and prestige on the coast. Notably, the Akyems were led in battle by Nana Afia Dokuaa, the Okyehene and only woman who was a ruler of a major state. Also important, was the fact that Congreve rockets were used for the first time against the Asante. Peace was not formalized until 1831, when the River Pra was accepted as the Southern Boundary of the Asante in a treaty concluded by Mr. George McLean.

Historian Rev. Carl Christian Reindorf in his book "The history of the Gold Coast and Asante" provides the following Ga - focused account :

“The combined forces of Prampram, Ningo, Ada and the riverside people just at the same time followed up the attack, and the position of the Asantes became critical. King Osei Yaw, realizing the danger, marched in defence with his body-guard, stood upon the royal stool, and drew the war-sword waving it between heaven and earth, as kings usually do in war, but the rebound was too strong, and he was wounded. There was a severe conflict between the king’s bodyguard and the forces under Opoku Fredefrede, in which the Asantes were beaten and greatly weakened; and on account of the defeat, the Asante General afterwards poisoned himself and died at Asafo. Dshani Afutu and Ante from Teshi are said to have shouted the religious war cry of Awo awo awo!’ to which every warrior of the whole column responded as one man: “Awo, Agabai bereku tso!” A loud voice was heard in the enemy line. “Edom agu o!” The Battle is lost” Then all the baggage was hastily thrown on a heap as high as a mountain, and the Asante army took to flight, after fighting and holding their position for nine hours, from 6 a.m. — 3 p.m. Prisoners were made, and then the baggage and camp were taken”

“of all the battles fought by the Asantes since the formation of their kingdom, Katamansu had proved to be the most fatal. The King had lost sixty of his Generals, Chiefs and captains, but few of the commanders escaped with himself and Boaten”.

It is said that the hair- style worn by the Asante women dubbed “Gyese Nkran”, (except Akra), vulgarized as Densinkran, was introduced to mourn the Asante dead in the Katamansu war.

August 4, 1947: The United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) was formed

In the midst of great momentum for an independence movement in the Gold Coast, the first political party was founded in 1947. The party was led by native luminaries from different spheres of influence including, but not limited to, academics, lawyers, and chiefs.

"Big Six" leaders of the UGCC

"Big Six" leaders of the UGCC

The principal financier of the organization was George Alfred "Paa" Grant who was known as the "father" of Gold Coast politics. The founder and operational leader was JB Danquah. The Big Six (leaders of the party and in the movement for independence) came from the UGCC and accelerated the push towards independence over the next decade through a series of boycotts, sit-ins, demonstrations, and publications calling for action.

The UGCC professed self-governance "in the shortest possible time." Kwame Nkrumah eventually broke away from the group and gained popularity while incarcerated by the British. He began professing the need for "self-governance now" and formed his own political movement which became the Convention Peoples Party (CPP).

August 2, 2008: Joshua Clottey wins IBF World Welterweight Title

August 2, 2008: Joshua Clottey wins IBF World Welterweight Title

Ghana has a rich history of boxing champions dating back to DK Poison's 1975 featherweight title triumph over Ruben Olivares in California, USA. Since that day, Ghana has seen many of her sons including Azumah Nelson, Ike Quartey, Cobra Koteng, and Joseph Agbeko rise to the crown. On August 2, 2008 Joshua Clottey added his name to these ranks...

August 1, 1962: Nkrumah is injured by an attempt on his life from a bomb in Kulungugu.

On August 1st, 1962, the President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah had stopped in the village of Kulungugu, in the Bawku District, on his way back from an official meeting with President Maurice Yameogo of the Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) at Tenkudugo. The visit was to discuss and further plans to eliminate customs barriers between the two countries, a small step in the larger Pan-African unity scheme.  The return road trip in Ghana was complicated by an unusually heavy downpour, putting the usual order of the convoy into disarray over a very bad road.  There was great pressure for the presidential convoy to stop at Kulungugu, a small village on the outskirts of Bawku, to acknowledge school children who had been waiting to catch a glimpse of their president.  As a school child was approaching the president with a bouquet of flowers, according to one account, his military bodyguard Capt Samuel Buckman, hearing the ticking of a timing device getting louder and closer, instinctively wrestled the president to the ground, a split second before the bomb exploded. Both the president and his military aide de camp experienced non- life threatening injuries.  The child bearing the bouquet was killed and others were severely injured. Nkrumah was treated by a British doctor at Bawku hospital, who removed shrapnel from his back and side. He recuperated in Tamale for a week after, where ironically, he was visited by then Brigadier Ankrah, later to lead the military government in 1966 which overthrew Nkrumah. Though Nkrumah later accused his Minister of Information,Broadcasting and Presidential Affairs, Tawia Adamafio for being behind the plot, the general consensus is that the attack was carried out by opposition United Party (UP) operatives from northern Ghana who had been trained in Lome, Togo. Ironically, in the months of May and June preceding this attack, Nkrumah had ordered the release of many political opponents he had previously detained under the Preventative Detention Act. These included Dr. J. B. Danquah, the leader of the United Party. He had also granted an amnesty to political exiles.

Kulungugu bombing of August 1st 1962 injures target, Nkrumah.png

July 31, 1991 "Committee of Experts" presents 252 page report on constitutional proposals to the PNDC

The Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC) government established the National Commission for Democracy (NCD) in 1981 to formulate a strategy for governance in Ghana. Out of the NCD proposals, non-partisan local district council elections took place in 1988. By May 31, 1991, a committee of nine experts was appointed to draw up and submit a draft constitution of Ghana. This "Committee of Experts" under the leadership of  Prof. S.K.B. Asante, began their deliberations on June 11. On June 16, 1991, Chairman Rawlings stated that he was not opposed to multi-party democracy and by July 1991 the Conference of Catholic Bishops weighed into the debate with a report calling for a return to multi-party democracy by the end of 1992. The Committee presented a 252 page draft report on July 31st, 1991 to the government.  This report formed the basis of the work of the National Consultative Assembly of over 200 members, leading eventually to the constitution of the 4th Republic. The constitution's main focus was placed on fundamental human rights, equality before the law, representation of the people, and the registration of political parties.

Head of the Committee of Experts, Prof. S.K.B. Asante

Head of the Committee of Experts, Prof. S.K.B. Asante

July 30, 1994 Alfred "Cobra" Kotey wins WBO Bantamweight Title

Alfred “Cobra” Kotey of Bukom, Accra won the World Boxing Organization (WBO) title on this day in 1994 by defeating Rafael Del Valle in London, England. He represented Ghana in the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. He held the title until October 21, 1995 when he lost the title to Daniel Jimenez by decision at Bethnal Green, London. He had a record 43 fights, 26 wins 16 wins by KO 16 losses and 1 draw. He retired on May 26, 2012 in Accra, after a string of losses.


July 27, 1955: Select Committee of the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly rejects federal constitution

On July 27, 1955 the Parliamentary Select Committee studying the issue, rejected federalism for a centralized unitary government. The Select Committee also rejected the request from the opposition for a bi-cameral parliament. The extra-parliamentary group advocating federalism, the National Liberation Movement (NLM) boycotted the talks. Nkrumah’s position was that federalism was simply a proxy for advancing tribalism in the service of the elite.

Prior to the meeting of the committee, in January 1955, political violence had erupted in Kumasi in response to the Governor’s ban on carrying weapons in that city. Several people were killed and many were arrested. In March 1955, the Northern Peoples Party (NPP) also announced their support for federalism. In spite of recommendation of the Parliamentary select committee, in August 1955, the Asante and Northern parties again presented a proposal for a federal form of government to the Crown.

Subsequently, Sir Frederick Bourne arrived in Accra in September to further study the issue and recommended that the independence constitution should “provide a substantial transfer of power from the centre to the regions”. The NLM refused to attend the All Party Achimota Conference scheduled to discuss the question of federalism they were proposing.  The British Secretary for the Colonies called for an election, after which the assembly would vote on the constitutional impasse. On May 10, 1956 the Prime Minister Nkrumah’s home in Accra New Town was bombed while he was in a meeting with ministers of the government.

The Convention Peoples Party (CPP) won 70 of the 104 seats in the July 1956 elections for the new assembly. On August 3, 1956 the legislative assembly voted for independence with the name Ghana, within the Commonwealth with 72 votes out of 104. The Colonial Secretary announced that independence would be granted on March 6, 1957. On November 15, 1956, the assembly voted 70 to 25 to adopt a unitary form of constitution, which prompted the NLM and the NPP to send a resolution to Whitehall demanding separate independence for Asante and the Northern Territories. On November 10, 1956, the British Colonial Office issued a statement in opposition to the division of the Gold Coast and on December 18, 1956 the “Independence Bill” was passed by the British House of Commons, becoming law on February 7, 1957.

There was still no agreement on the constitution but after a visit to the Gold Coast by the Secretary for Colonies, on February 8, 1957 the Colonial Office published a draft of the compromise constitution which both Kwame Nkrumah and Dr. K. A. Busia endorsed on February 12, 1957. The next day, the Queen announced that Sir Charles Arden-Clarke would be the first Governor-General after independence.

July 27, 1886: Akwamu State signs a treaty to become part of the British Protectorate

The Akwamus like most Akans also migrated from Adanse to settle at the Twifo-Heman forest during the latter part of the 16th century. At its peak in the early 18th century, the Akwamu Kingdom stretched more than 250 miles (400 km) along the coast from Whydah (now Ouidah, Benin) in the east to beyond Winneba (now in Ghana) in the west. This group of Akans belonged to the Aduana family and are kin of the Asumennya, Dormaa and Kumawu. According to oral tradition, as a result of a succession dispute, Otumfuo (brass-smith) Asare deserted the family to form a new state or city called Asaremankesee- (Asares big state). The modern city of Asaamankese was originally founded and occupied by the Akwamus.

These Asona family members and their followers then were given land from the original settlers the Guans and Kyerepons, to form the Akuapem state. Most of the present Akuapems still have their roots at Akwamufie especially those bearing the names like Addo and Akoto or those from the Aduana family.

The King of Akwamu Nana Ansa Sasraku (1640-1674) played an important role in the life of the King Osei Tutu of Asante. According to oral tradition, the whole structure of the Asante army attributed to Nana Osei Kofi Tutu l which served the Asantes through many wars, was modelled on the well organised Akwamu army.

Osei Tutu's father was Owusu Panin from Akwamu and his mother was named Manu Kotosii who was from Kwaaman. She was the sister of Oti Akenten and Obiri Yeboa the late kings of Kwaaman. As legend has it, Manu was unable to have children, her brother Obiri Yeboa sent her to a shrine priest called Otutu in Akwamu for help. Later she conceived and gave birth to a baby boy (Osei Kofi) and named him after the shrine called Tutu. At that time, Kwaaman was a vassal state of the Denkyira so when Osei was teenager, he was sent to serve at the court of Boa Amponsem, the then king of Denkyira. Later, Osei got himself into trouble by impregnating the king's sister Akobena Bensua and fled to his father in Akwamu for protection. When Osei got to Akwamu, Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku received him warmly, thus protecting him from the Denkyiras. It was in Akwamu that Osei Tutu met Kwame Frimpong Anokye (a.k.a. Okomfo Anokye) and established a close friendship. Shortly after that, Osei's uncle, Obiri Yeboa, King of Kwaaman died in their war against Dormaa. As a result, Osei was next in line for the Kwaaman throne. The prospect of facing the Denkyiras loomed large as he planned his return to Kwaaaman. Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku therefore detached 300 Akwamu soldiers support his return to Kwaaman. When the soldiers got to Kwaaman, they settled among them and later became citizens of Asafo. The soldiers then restructured the Asante army as the replica of the well-organised Akwamu army and with the help of the Akwamus, they embarked on a series of campaigns which led to the defeat of the Denkyiras; the Asantes and the Akwamu alliance was short-lived as the Akwamu were soon to face combined force of Akyem (Akyem AbuakwaAkyem Kotoku and Akyem Bosome), Ga, Kyerepon, and the Dutch. As the state grew rich on the sale of gold from the Birim River district, its inhabitants sought to extend their authority. Because they were hemmed in on the north and northwest by the state of Akim and other states in loose alliance with or subject to the powerful Denkyira, they expanded south and southeast toward the Ga and Fante (Fanti) towns of the coast. These they subdued between 1677 and 1681 under their king (Akwamuhene), Ansa Sasraku II. They also extended their influence over the state of Ladoku in the east (1679) and, under Ansa’s successor, over the Fante state of Agona in the west (1689). In 1693 under the leadership of Asomani a detachment of Akwamu soldiers seized control of Christanborg Castle at Osu. The Danes regained control of the property after paying 50 marks of gold and an agreement not to seek future reparations. The Akwamus retained the keys to the castle for years after. In 1702 under Ansa Sasraku IV, they crossed the Volta River to occupy Whydah, a coastal state of Dahomey (now in southern Benin), and in 1710 Otumfuo Akonno Panyin subdued the Ewe people of the Ho region. By this time, however, their former satellite, Asante, had grown rich and powerful and was becoming increasingly hostile to the Akyems. Pressured by the Asante, the Akyem peoples retreated upon Akwamu’s borders and, after a long war, succeeded in infiltrating them. The Akyems handed the Asante’s one of their most significant military defeats along with the killing of Osei Tutu on the River Pra at Twifo Praso in 1717. In 1730, the Akyems defeated the Akwamu’s taking control of Accra and the Ga –Adangbe areas along the coast. The Akwamuhene was forced to flee, and by 1731 the state had effectively ceased to exist. However, by 1742 the Asante’s defeated the Akyems, effectively controlling access to the ocean in the Ga – Adange areas.

What was left of the Akwamu nation became a British Protectorate on July 27, 1886 as the British expansion of the Gold Coast continued.